CE 397  Transboundary Water Resources

Reading List




Some Quotes


World Commission on Dams

World Commission on Dams (Editor), Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, Earthscan Publications; 1st edition (February 1, 2001), ISBN: 1853837989, (Available online: http://www.dams.org/report/contents.htm)

Power Point Presentation on WCD by Laton Carr and Elaine Darby https://webspace.utexas.edu/darbyee/A%20Study%20of%20Dams.ppt?uniq=hujyxp

Multi-stakeholder Processes:  The Legacy of the World Commission on Dams (see assignments for link)

WCD website: http://www.dams.org/

“World Bank says it won't abide by World Commission on Dams”
“The Creation of the World Commission on Dams”
“The World Bank Position on the Report of the WCD”


Fearnside, P.M (2005) Brazil’s Samuel Dam: Lessons for Hydroelectric Development Policy and the Environment in Amazonia. Environmental Management, Vol 35, No. 1, pp. 1-19


Fearnside, P.M, (2002)  Avanca Brasil: Environmental and Social Consequences of Brazil’s Planned Infrastructure in Amazonia.  Environmental Management Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 735-747.


Fearnside, P.M, (1990) Social Impacts of Brazil’s Tucurui Dam.  Environmental Management, Vol. 24 No. 4 pp. 483-495





Paul E. Little. Abundance is Abundance is not enough. Water‐related conflict in the Amazon River Basin. University of Brasilia. Brazil, 2003. Pages. 4‐12

Takuji Kulbota. "Global precipitation map using satellite borne Microwave radiometers."CREST, Jepan Science and Technology agency. 2005.

World Bank. Integrated management of aquatic resources in the Amazon region. Project AQUABIO . May 15, 2006. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/BRAZILEXTN/

Amazon. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/art‐3439/The‐Central‐and‐Northern‐Andes‐and‐the‐Amazon‐River‐basin

Amazon. UNESCO. Feb12, 1008. http://www.unesco.org.uy/mab/documentospdf/amazon.pdf

Water National Agency. Brazil. Feb12, 2008. http://www.ana.gov.br

Amazon. Organization of America States. http://www.oas.org/dsd/Events/english/Documents/OSDE_8Amazon.pdf

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA. Monthly precipitation in South America for
2001. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Sttudy/LBA/

La Plata

La Plata River Basin, Case study from World Water Assessment Program (WWAP), UNESCO, 2006. http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr2/case_studies/pdf/la_plata.pdf

Case Study – Plata/Parana River Basin. Rascheck, B and M. Hegglin, Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, November 2002.

World’s top 10 rivers at risk. Wong, CM, Williams, CE, Pittock, J, Collier, U and P Schelle. March 2007, WWF International, Switzerland. pp. 14-16.

The La Plata River Basin, Transboundary Basin Sub-Projects, Water for Peace, Green Cross International. http://www.greencrossitalia.it/ita/acqua/wfp/plata_wfp_001.htm

The Hydrovia Project, Global Environment Outlook. http://www-cger.nies.go.jp/geo2000/english/0088.htm

Pacific Islands

Burns, William. "Chapter 5: Pacific Island Developing Country Water Resources and Climate Change."
Worlds Water: 2002‐2003. Island P, 2002. 113‐131. http://www.pacinst.org/publications/worlds_water/worlds_water_2002_chapter5.pdf

Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W., and Luis Jose Mata. "Chapter 3: Fresh Water Resources and Their Management." IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. 173‐210.

Mimura, Nobou, and Leonard Nurse. "Chapter 16: Small Islands." IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. 684‐716.

Pacific Islands Forum: http://www.forumsec.org/index.cfm

SOPC: http://www.sopac.org/tiki/tiki‐index.php

UN Small Island Developing States (SIDS): http://www.unohrlls.org/en/sids


Lieberthal, K. 1997. China’s Governing System And Its Impact on Environmental Policy Implementation, China Environment Series No. 1. Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, pp. 3-8.

Liu, C. 1998. “Environmental Issues and the South-North Water Transfer Scheme,” The China Quarterly, Special Issue: China's Environment. 156:899-910.

Christen, K. 2006. “Linking China's air pollution to exports,” Env. Sci. Tech. A-Pages; 2006; 40:2073-2074

Ramirez, L. 2005. “Water Shortages Are Potential Threat to China's Growth, Stability”

Brown, Lester, “China Losing War With Advancing Deserts,” http://www.earthpolicy.org/Updates/Update26.htm

Yang, L. 2007. “China’s Three Gorges Dam Under Fire,” Time, 10-12-2007


Stokke, O.S. “A legal regime for the Arctic? Interplay with the Law of the Sea Convention.” Marine Policy, Vol. 31 (2006), pp. 402-408

Stenlund, P. “Lessons in regional cooperation from the arctic,” Ocean & Coastal Management, 45(2002) pp. 835-839

Swahill, Steven G. “ Cleaning-up the Arctic’s Cold War Legacy: Nuclear Waste and Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation.” Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 135:1 (2000) pp. 5-36

T. E. M. McKitterick, "The Validity of Territorial and Other Claims in Polar Regions," Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, 3rd Ser., Vol. 21, No. 1. (1939), pp. 89-97.

Subsaharan Africa



Earth Observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Laboratory/PlanetEarthScience/GlobalWarming/


UNAIDS: Sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryResponses/Regions/SubSaharanAfrica.asp

Water Stress in Sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.cfr.org/publication/11240/

World Bank. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/EXTPUBREP/EXTSTATINAFR/0,,contentMDK:21106218~menuPK:824080~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:824043,00.html.

UNICEF. http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/gw/




Pages 1- 15:  Kandji, Serigne T., Louis Verchot, and Jens Mackensen. Climate Change and Variability in the Sahel Region: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in the Agricultural Sector. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). UNEP, 2006. 1-48.  http://www.unep.org/Themes/Freshwater/Documents/pdf/ClimateChangeSahelCombine.pdf

Batterbury, Simon. "The Sahel Region; Assessing Process Twenty-Five Years After the Great Drought." The Geographical (1998): 6. 31 Jan. 2008 <www.simonbatterbury.net/pubs/geomag.htm>. 

Cotula, Lorenzo. Land and Water Rights in the Sahel: Tenure Challenges of Improving Access to Water for Agriculture. Sida and FAO. London, UK. 1-98.

Li, K Y., M T. Coe, N Ramankutty, and R De Jong. "Modeling the Hydrological Impact of Land-Use Change in West Africa." Journal of Hydrology 337 (2207): 258-268.

Mulford, M R. "Government, Population and Ecology in the Sahel: a Study in Disaster." (1994): 1-12. 4 Feb. 2008 <www.frontier.net/~mmulford/sahel.htm>.

Environmental Flows

Postel, Sandra, and Brian Richter.  Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature.  2003.  pp 79-92

Hughes, Denis A., and Pauline Hannart.  “A desktop model used to provide an initial estimate of the ecological instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa.”  Journal of Hydrology.  Vol 270, no 3.  pp 167-181. Jan 2003.

South Africa Department of Water Affairs and Forestry National Water Resource Strategy: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Policies/NWRS/Default.htm.

Gippel, C., T. Jacobs, and T. McLeod.  “Environmental flows and water quality objectives for the River Murray.”  Water Science and Technology.  Vol 45, no 11.  pp 251-260.  2002. http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/04511/0251/045110251.pdf

The Murray – Darling Basin Commission. “The Cap” brochure.  http://www.mdbc.gov.au/naturalresources/the_cap/cap_brochure.pdf

Annear, T., Chisholm, I., Beecher, H., Locke, A., et al.  2004.  Instream Flows for Riverine Resource Stewardship: Revised edition.  Instream Flow Council: Cheyenne, WY.


Dyson, M., Bergkamp, G. and Scanlon, J., Ed.  2003.  Flow: The Essentials of Environmental Flow.  International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN): Gland, Switzerland.  Online at: http://iucn.org/themes/wani/pub/FLOW.pdf


Poff, N.L., et al.  1997.  The Natural Flow Regime.  Bioscience 47(11) 769-784.  Online at: http://rydberg.biology.colostate.edu/poffpubs/Poff1997(BS_NFR_low).pdf


Postel, S. and Richter, B.  2003.  Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature.  Island Press: Washington, D.C.  Remainder of Ch. 1, 2 (background, science) and Ch. 4 (case studies).


The Nature Conservancy Sustainable Waters Program, http://www.freshwaters.org/

Bottled Water


Water and Gender

UNEP. (2004) “Chapter 5 ‐ Women and water management: an integrated approach”. Women and the Environment. pages 60‐71.

Water Aid. ( 2008) Problems for Women. Water Aid America.  http://www.wateraid.org/usa/what_we_do/the_need/1833.asp

GWA. (2003). “Executive Summary”. The Gender and Water Development Report 2003: Gender perspectives on water in the policy sector. Pages 9‐15.

Global Environment Facility

Duda, A., (2002) Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper 10, GEF Corporate Monitoring and Evaluation Team (available online)

GEF (2004) Protecting International Waters Sustaining livelihoods, Lessons for the future, November 2004 (available online)

GEF, (1996). Operational Strategy. Global Environment Facility, Washington, DC. (Available online)

GEF (2005) Achieving the Millenium development Goals. A GEF progress Report, September 2005 (available online)

GEF website: http://www.thegef.org, http://www.thegef.org/What_is_the_GEF/what_is_the_gef.html

Uitto, J. I. , Duda, A. (2004),  Management of transboundary water resources: lessons from international cooperation for conflict prevention, The Geographical Journal, Volume 168 Issue 4 Page 365  - December 2002   doi:10.1111/j.0016-7398.2002.00062.x (available online)

 Nonprofit Organizations

Chitale, Madhav A.  “The Narmada Project.”  Water Resources Development.  13.2   pp 167-179.  1997.   (See section at end about NGO involvement)

International Network of Basin Organizations, “International organizations urge G8 world leaders to allocate funds to promote cooperation over transboundary waters for development, security and peace.”   May 30, 2003  (available online)

Global Water - http://www.globalwater.org/

Green Cross International - http://www.greencrossinternational.net/index1.html

Perspectives on Freshwater – Issues and Recommendations of NGOs: http://www.earthsummit2002.org/freshwater/Freshwater%20Report.pdf

Water For People - http://www.water4people.org/index_main.htm

World Wide Fund for Nature (formerly World Wildlife Fund) - http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater/index.cfm

Valuation of Environmental Systems

http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/envext.nsf/44ByDocName/EnvironmentalEconomicsandItsApplicationsEnvironmentalValuation  (intro to concept)

http://csf.colorado.edu/sristi/papers/ecoethic.html  (social values)

http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/  (specifics on subject)






Environmental Taxes

Final Water Quality Trading Policy http://www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/trading/finalpolicy2003.html

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality  Water Quality Trading http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3682_3719-14329--,00.html

National Wildlife Federation A New Tool For Water Quality: Making Watershed-Based Trading Work For You

Environmental Taxes: Recent Developments in Tools For Integration http://reports.eea.eu.int/Environmental_Issues_No_18/en/envissue18.pdf

Water Availability

Allan, T., ‘Virtual water’: a long term solution for water short Middle Eastern economies?, Water Issues Group, School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London, 1997

Biswas, Asit K., Management of International Waters: Opportunities and Constraints, in Sustainable Development of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins, A.K. Biswas and J.I. Uitto (eds.), United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1-16, 2001.

Chou, Sophie, Russ Bezark, and Anne Wilson, Water Scarcity in River Basins as a Security Problem, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Environmental change and Security Project, Washington DC, pp. 96-105, 1997

Elhance, Arun P., Introduction, Hydropolitics in the Third World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River Basins, United States Institute for Peace, Washington DC, 1999, pp. 3-23.

Falkenmark, Malin, The Massive Water Scarcity Now Threatening Africa-Why Isn't it Being Addressed?, Ambio, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1989.

Giordano, M. and A. Wolf, Sharing Waters: Post-Rio International Water Management, Natural Resources Forum, 27: 163-171, 2003 (Available Online)

Gleick, Peter H., Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993. 

Gleick, Peter H., Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs, Water International, Vol. 21, pp. 83-92, 1996.

Gleick, Peter H., The World's Water: http://www.worldwater.org/

Gleick, Peter H., The World's Water 1998-99, Island Press, Washington DC, 1998. 

Gleick, Peter H., The Human Right To Water, Water Policy, Vol.1, No. 5, pp. 487-503, 1999.  (available online at: http://www.pacinst.org/waterpub.html

Gleick, Peter H., The Changing Water Paradigm: A Look at Twenty-first Century Water Resources Development, Water International, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 127-138, 2000 (available online at: http://www.pacinst.org/waterpub.html).

Gleick, Peter H., Coping With the Global Fresh Water Dilemma:  The State, Market Forces, and Global Governance, in The Global Environment in the Twenty-First Century: Prospects for International Cooperation, P.S. Chasek (ed.), United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp.204-222, 2001.  

Gleick, Peter H., The World's Water 2000-01, Island Press, Washington DC, 2001. 

Lundqvist, Jan and Peter Gleick, Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World, Stockholm Environment Institute, 1997.  (available from the instructor)

Postel, Sandra L., Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, W. W. Norton Publishers, New York, 1997.

Postel, S., B. Richter, Rivers for Life : Managing Water for People and Nature, Island Press, Paperback, 2003, ISBN: 1559634448, See: http://www.freshwaters.org/

Shiklomanov, Igor. A., Appraisal and Assessment of World Water Resources, Water International Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 11-32, 2000  (available online at: http://www.iwra.siu.edu/win/win2000/win03-00/shiklomanov.pdf)

Shiklomanov, Igor. A., World Water Resources, A New Appraisal and Assessment for the 21st Century, UNESCO, IHP Non-Serial Publications in Hydrology, Paris, 1998 (available online at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?database=ged&no=112671)

United Nations, Register of International Rivers, Water Supply and Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1978

United Nations,
The 3rd United Nations World Water Development Report: Water in a Changing World (WWDR-3)  http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/

de Villiers, Marq, Water: The Fate of our Most Precious Resource, Houghton-Mifflin, New York, 2000.

Wolf, Aaron T., et al., International River Basins of the World, Int'l J. of Water Resources Development, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1999.  (available online at: http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/publications/register/) (see also: Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements, UNEP, 2003  http://www.unep.org/Documents/Default.asp?DocumentID=67&ArticleID=3813)

Free Trade and the Environment

This is a document produced by the CEC presented at the North American Symposium on assessing the linkages between trade and the environment (October 2000).  It is an excellent paper!  http://www.cec.org/files/pdf/ECONOMY/FreeTrade-en-fin.pdf

Browse the CEC web page.  I will talk about citizens’ submissions.  So look at the various cases under >>Citizens Submission on Enforcement Matters>>Status  http://www.cec.org/citizen/status/index.cfm?varlan=english

Global Water Assessment

Water Rights

Akmansoy, Sandra and Daene McKinney, Aral Sea Water Rights, CRWR Online Report 98-3, Univ. of Texas, Austin, 1998 (Availble online)

Beaumont, Peter, The 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Its Strengths and Weaknesses from a Water Management Perspective and the Need for New Workable Guidelines, Water Resources Development, Vol. 16, No. 4, 475–495, 2000 (available online)

Canoperna, D., Patterns of Cooperation in International Water Law: Principles and Institutions, Nat. Res. J. 25:563, 1985.

Dellapenna, J.W., The customary international law of transboundary fresh waters, Int. J. Global Environmental Issues, Vol. 1, Nos. 3/4, pp.264–305, 2001 (available online)

Draper, Stephen E., International Duties and Obligations for Transboundary Water Sharing, J. of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 123, No. 6, pp. 344-349, 1997.

Green Cross International, National Sovereignty and International Watercourses, March, 2000. http://web243.petrel.ch/pdf/Sovereignty.pdf

Hunter, D., J. Salzman, and D. Zaelke, International Environmental Law and Policy, Foundation Press, New York, 2002.

International Law Association, Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Water of International Rivers (1966)

McCaffrey, S. C., The Law of International Watercourses:  Non-Navigational Uses, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001 

Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region (1995)

Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in the Southern African Development Community (2000)

Solanes, Miguel "Legal and Institutional Aspects of River Basin Development" Water International, 17, pp. 116-123, 1992

UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (1992)

UN Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (1997)

UN/ECE Draft Protocol on Water and Health to the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (final draft as adopted June 17, 1999)

Waterbury, J., Between Unilateralism and Comprehensive Accords: Modest Steps toward Cooperation in International River Basins, Water Resources Development, Vol. 13, No. 3, 279-289, 1997 (available online)

Wolf, Aaron T. Criteria for Equitable Allocations: The Heart of International Water Conflict, Natural Resources Forum. Vol. 23, No. 1,  pp. 3-30, 1999 (available online).


Caspian Sea Region: Environmental Issues. (Available Online).

Oil and Gas in the Caspian Sea Region: An Overview of Cooperation and Conflict. (Available Online).

Caspian Sea Region: Legal Issues. (Available Online).


Gleick, P. (1993). Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security. International Security, 18 (1), 79-112.

International Committeeof the Red Cross, Water and War, Geneva, 2009 http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/MUMA-7QC9FT?OpenDocument

Mostert, E., Conflict and Cooperation in the Management of International Freshwater Resources: A Global Review, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

Priscoli, Jerome Delli, International Conflicts Related to Transboundary Water, Leadership for Environmental and Development, 1998 (Available online)

Ravnborg, H. M. (ed.), Water and COnflict Prevention and Mitigation in Water Resources Management, DIIS REPORT 2004:2

Samson, Paul & Charrier, Bertrand, International Freshwater Conflict: Issues and Prevention Strategies, Green Cross International, 1997 (Available online)

Sherk, George William, Patricia Wouters & Samantha Rochford, Water Wars in the Near Future? Reconciling Competing Claims for the World's Diminishing Freshwater Resources - The Challenge of the Next Millennium, The CEPMLP On-Line Journal, Vol. 3, No.2 (Available online)

Spreij, M., Institutions for International Freshwater Management, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

UNDP, Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Skills for Integrated Water Resources Management, International Network for Capacity Building in Integrated Water Resources Management, July 2008 http://www.cap-net.org/node/1300

Ward, Diane R., Water Wars: Drought, Flood, Folly, and the politics of Thirst, Riverhead Books, New York, 2002

Wolf, Aaron, Water and Human Security, Aviso, Vol. 3, June 1999 (Available online)


An interesting summary, from a lawyer’s perspective, of recent developments on the Columbia river and what the future may hold -  http://www.stoel.com/resources/articles/environment/env_030.shtm

 The 1961 treaty between the U.S. and Canada concerning the Columbia River - http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/RegionalDocs/Columbia_River1961.htm

Basin Description, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - http://www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/TMT/basin.html

Basin Map with links to dams, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - http://www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/report/colmap.htm

Skim Columbia River Basin-Dams and Salmon

Columbia River Treaty (Available online)

Columbia River Treaty Overview (Available online)

Dams and Salmon, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - http://www.nwd.usace.army.mil/ps/colrvbsn.htm

Federal Caucus (Skim the two links at the bottom for a bit more.)

Federal Caucus, The. (December 1999) Conservation of  Columbia Basin Fish, Building a Conceptual Recovery Plan.- http://www.salmonrecovery.gov/overview.shtml

Federal Caucus Comment Record. (Winter 2000, Issues 3) Citizen Update, Conservation of the Columbia Basin Fish, Public Meetings Planned & Report Summaries.

Harden, Blaine. A River Lost. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York, NY. 1996. pages 17, 25.

Krutilla, John V., The Columbia River Treaty: the Economics of an International River Basin Development. Baltimore: Hopkins Press, 1967. copies of pages: 8-26, 59-67, 119-122, 191-204. 

Krutilla, John V., The Columbia River Treaty: the Economics of an International River Basin Development. Baltimore: Hopkins Press, 1967.  pp. 142-150, 153-167.

Map of the Columbia River Basin (http://www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/report/colmap.htm)

Muckleston, K. W., International Management in the Columbia Basin System, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003.

Northwest Power Planning Council. (February, 2000) The Year of Decision, Renewing the Northwest Power Planning Council’s Fish and Wildlife Program.

Salmon Policy - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation - http://www.umatilla.nsn.us/salmonpolicy.html

Treaty with the Wallawalla, Cayuse, etc., 1855 (referenced in the above Salmon Policy – used as the legal basis for the tribes’ contention that the U.S. has not fulfilled its obligations) - http://pacific.fws.gov/ea/tribal/treaties/wallawalla.pdf

Volkman, John M., A River in Common: the Columbia River, the Salmon Ecosystem, and Water Policy. Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, August, Portland, 1997 (Available online).

Umatilla Indian Reservation Salmon Policy (It’s a bit lengthy, read I, II, and skim the rest)

United States and Canada. Treaty relating to cooperative development of the water resources of the Columbia River Basin (with Annexes) (Available online October, 2005 http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/RegionalDocs/Columbia_River1961.htm)

United States Army Corps of Engineers. Columbia River Basin-Dams and Salmon. (Available online October, 2005 http://www.nwd.usace.army.mil/ps/colrvbsn.htm).

United States Fish and Wildlife. The Endangered Species Act of 1973. (Available online October, 2005 http://endangered.fws.gov/esa.html)

United States Geological Survey. CVO Website-Columbia River Basin. (Available Online October, 2005 http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Washington/ColumbiaRiver/description_columbia_river.html)

Water Management For The Pacific Northwest Reservoir System, US Army Corps of Engineers

What Makes the Columbia River Basin Unique and How We Benefit (http://www.fwee.org/c-basin.html)

Wright, Steven J., Ahamd-Ali Honarpisheh. (2000) Temperature and Dissolved Gas Modeling Applied to Salmon Restoration Efforts. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Michigan.


Beach, H.L., Hamner, J., Hewitt, J.J., Kaufman, E.,Kurki, A., Oppenheimer, J.A., and Wolf, A.T. 2000. Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Resolution: Theory, Practice, and Annotated References. United Nations University Press.  http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/projects/casestudies/

Botterweg, T. and Rodda, D.W., Danube River Basin: Progress with the Environmental Programme, Water Sci. Tech., Vol. 40, No. 10, 1999, 1-8. http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/04010/wst040100001.htm

Controversy in the Danube Waters by Maria A. Sonschein (http://danubedita.tripod.com/library/d98maria.htm)
Eckstein, G. and Eckstein, Y., International Water Law, Groundwater Resources and the Danube River Case, 1998 http://internationalwaterlaw.org/Articles/GW-Resources.htm

Environment News Service Danube, Restoration Plan Takes Flight at Summit, 2001 http://ens.lycos.com/ens/may2001/2001L-05-01-10.html

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin http://www.rec.org/DanubePCU/default.html

Food and Agricultural Division of the United Nations http://www.fao.org/regional/SEUR/Tisza/tisza4_en.htm

Fortunato, J., Kurland, K., Barcus, L., and Mitchell, T. ICE Case Studies: Danube, 1997 www.american.edu/projects/mandala/TED/ice/DANUBE.HTM

Global presentation of dams and the Danuube (http://www.duke.edu/~ym/gepp.html)

Hollis, June, “Look at Central and Eastern Europe” http://user.intop.net/~jhollis/index.htm

International Commission for the Protection of the Danube http://www.icpdr.org/flash.htm

ICPRD (International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River)http://www.icpdr.org/DANUBIS/DANUBIS.navigator

ICPRD (International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River), Danube Basin Analysis (WFD Roof report 2004), http://www.icpdr.org/pls/danubis/docs/FOLDER/HOME/ICPDR/EXPERT_GROUPS/RBMEG/ROOF_REP_2004/FINAL_DOCUMENT/COMPLETE+ROOF+REPORT+-+FINAL+DOCUMENT+-+MINIMUM.PDF

Margesson, R. Reducing conflict over the Danube waters: equitable utilization and sustainable development, Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 21, No.1, 1997, 23-38

Pintér, G., The Danube Accident Emergency Warning System, Water Sci. Tech., Vol. 40, No. 10, 1999, 27-33. http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/04010/wst040100027.htm

Regional Environmental Center of Eastern Europe  http://www.rec.org/

River Net: The Danube River Basin http://www.rivernet.org/danube/danube.htm

Sonschein, Maria A., Controversy in the Danube Waters  (http://danubedita.tripod.com/library/d98maria.htm)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

   http://www.unido.org/doc/27825 and http://www.unido.org/doc/26190


Verdict of the international court of justice by Janet McBride. (Available online:  ICJ.pdf)

Water for Peace in the Danube Basin, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003 http://webworld.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp/cd/pdf/case_studies/gci_danube_doc.pdf

Fürst, H. The Hungarian-Slovakian Conflict over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dams: An Analysis. Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, University of
Hamburg, Germany.

Wolf, A. Conflict and cooperation along international waterways. Water Policy (1) 251-265, 1998.

Finger, M.(ed.), Tamiotti, L.(ed.), and Allouche, J. (ed.). The Multi-Governance of Water: Four Case Studies. State University of New York Press, 2006.

Fitzmaurice, J. Damming the Danube: Gabcíkovo and Post-Communist Politics in Europe. Westview Press, 1996.

Focas, S. The Lower Danube River: In the Southeastern European Political and Economic Complex from Antiquity to the Conference of Belgrade of 1948. Columbia University Press, 1987.

Jansky, L., Murakami, M., and Pachova N. The Danube: Environmental Monitoring of an International River. United Nations University Press, 2004.

Lessner, N. The Danube: The Dramatic History of the Great River and the People Touched by its Flow. Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1961.

Romsics, I. and Béla K. Király (ed.). Geopolitics in the Danube Region: Hungarian Reconciliation Efforts, 1848-1998. Central European University Press, 1999

European Union

Bosnjakovic, Branko, Regulation of International Watercourses under the UN/ECE Regional Agreements, Water International, December 2000

Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, UN/ECE (www.unece.org/env/water/topfra1.htm)

EC Directive establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (www.europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/lif/dat/2000/en_300L0060.html)

Environment and Transition in Central and Eastern Europe http://www.worldbank.org/html/extpb/abshtml/13173.htm

Environment and Health in Central and Eastern Europe: A Report for the Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe- Abstract  http://www.wri.org/wr-98-99/wr98-001.htm

Environmental Taxes and Charges

EU-Enlargement http://www.chp.cz/cu_envi.htm

EU Nitrates Directive

Gooch, G. D., et al., Review of Existing Structures, Models, and Practices for Transboundary Water Management, European Commission, 2002

Helsinki Convention: trans-boundary watercourses and international lakes

Introduction to Environmental Regulation






Linking Environment and Health, World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99 http://www.wri.org/wr-98-99/comhertz.htm

UN/ECE web site (www.unece.org/env/water)


Check out these websites:


Asit K. Biswas and Juha I. Uitto, Sustainable Development of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins, chapter 2, United Nations University Press, 2001

lhance, Arun P., Hydropolitics in the 3-rd World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River basins, Chapter 5, United States Institute for Peace, 1999.

The Ganga Basin Available online: http:/www.cs.albany.edu/~amit/ganes.html

Ganges River Controversy Available online: http:/gurukul.ucc.american.edu/maksoud/water98/present1.htm

Kabir, B., Rashid, H.E., 1998, Case Study: Bangledesh, Water Resources and Population Pressures in the Ganges River Basin, Water and Population Dynamics, p 1-16. Available online: http:/www.aaas.org/international/ehn/waterpop/bang.htm

Rogers, P., The value of cooperation in resolving international river basin disputes, Natural Resources forum, 117 – 131, May 1993

Salmon, M.A., 1998, Co-Management of Resources: The case of the Ganges river, Pages 10-17, Especially Section 1 - Water Scarcity and the Competing Demands (Available online:  http:/gurukul.ucc.american.edu/maksoud/water98/present1.htm

Tyagi, A.C., The State of India's Waters, Third World Center for Water management, 2003.

The Water Page - River Ganges Available online: http:/www.thewaterpage.com/ganges.htm

Water Resources in the Ganges River Basin Available online: http:/www.lsmsa.edu/MKhandoker/environmental%20science/Aquatic%20Ecosystem/Conflict%20on%20water2-Ganges%20river%20issues.htm


Beach, Hammer, Hewitt, Kaufman, Kurki, Oppenheimer, and Wolf.  “Indus Water Treaty: Case summary” in Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Resolution. United Nations University Press: New York.  2000.  Pages 101-106.

Compton's Encyclopedia On-Line, Indus River (http://www.comptons.com/encyclopedia/ARTICLES/0075/00926720_A.html), 1998

Encyclopedia Britannica, Indus River History (http://kcm.co.kr/pakistan/StoryBook/ref/IndusWaterTreaty.html)

Hashmi, Faraz., Indus River System Authority to Iron Out Differences (http://www.dawn.com/2001/01/27/top5.htm), January 2001

Hooker, Richard., Harappa and the Indus River (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/HARAPPA.HTM), 1996

Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 (http://www.stimson.org/cbm/sa/indswtrs.htm)

Klare, Michael T.  “Water Conflict in the Jordan, Tigris-Euphrates, and Indus River Basins” in Resource Wars.  Metropolitan Books: New York.  Pages  161-189.

Mehta, Jagat S., Opinion (India)-The Indus Water Treaty: A Case Study in the Resolution of an International River Basin Conflict, Natural Resources Forum, 1988

Musalman, A.A., Opinion (Pakistan) Genesis of a Crisis (http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/may2001-daily/01-05-2001/oped/o1.htm), May 2001

Newbill, Michael, Indus Waters Treaty-A History (http://www.stimson.org/cbm/sa/indus.htm)

Rizvi, Muddassir., Forecasting Water Flows in Pakistan's Indus River (http://www.idrc.ca/reports/read_article_english.cfm?article_num=954), May 2001

Snelgrove, A.K., Geohydrology of the Indus River West Pakistan, Sind University Press, pp. 24-26, 1967 

World Commission on Dams Case Study: Pakistan: The Tarbela Dam and Indus River Basin, execituve summary http://www.dams.org/kbase/studies/pk/pk_exec.htm

The Stimson Center, Indus Waters Treaty; A History, Available: http://www.stimson.org/southasia/?sn=sa20020116301

The Indian bias –“Sharing the Indus” http://acorn.nationalinterest.in/2005/01/08/sharing-theindus/

The Pakistani bias – “Fallout on Baglihar Dam” http://www.dawn.com/2005/02/14/ebr18.htm


Allan, Tony Israel and water in the framework of the Arab-Israeli conflict, Occasional paper 15, SOAS Water Issues Group, University of London, 1999

Amery, H. A. and Wolf, A. T., Water in the Middle East:  A Geography of Peace, The University of Texas Press, 2000.

Elhance, Arun P., Hydropolitics in the 3-rd World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River basins, Chapter 3, United States Institute for Peace, 1999.

Haddadin, M. J., The Jordan River Basin: Water Conflict and Negotiated Resolution, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

Hillel, Daniel, Rivers of Eden:  Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Medzini, A. and A. T. Wolf, Towards a Middle East at Peace: Hidden Issues in Arab–Israeli Hydropolitics, Water Resources Development, Vol. 20, No. 2, 193 204, June 2004

Murad, Fadia Daibes, Water Resources in Palestine: A Fact Sheet and Basic Analysis of the Legal Status http://www.miftah.org/Display.cfm?DocId=6719&CategoryId=4

Orme, Willam A.  "Israel Raises its Glass to Desalination."  New York Times, June 23, 2001.

Shamir, U., Jordan River Case Study: The Negotiations and the Water Agreement between The Hashmite Kingdom of Jordan and the State of Israel, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

Water for Peace in the Jordan Basin, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003






§         1995, ECAFE, Agreement: http://mgd.nacse.org/qml/watertreaty/textdocs/international/36.html.

§         1975, ECAFE, “Joint Declaration on Principles,” http://mgd.nacse.org/qml/watertreaty/textdocs/international/34.html.

§         1975, ECAFE, “Joint Declaration on Principles,”  http://mgd.nacse.org/qml/watertreaty/textdocs/international/36.html

1995, ECAFE, Agreement: http://mgd.nacse.org/qml/watertreaty/textdocs/international/34.html

Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin, 5 April 1995, Mekong River Commission.

§   Amornsakchai, S., Annez, P., Vongvisessomjai, S., Choowaew, S., Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI), Kunurat, P., Nippanon, J., Schouten, R., Sripapatrprasite, P., Vaddhanaphuti, C., Vidthayanon, C., Wirojanagud, W., Watana, E. 2000.  Pak Mun Dam, Mekong River Basin, Thailand.  A WCD Case Study prepared as an input to the World Commission on Dams, Cape Town, www.dams.org.

Beach, H. L., J. Hamner, J. Hewitt, A. Kurki, J. Oppenheimer, A. Wolf, Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Resolution, pp. 107-100, United Nations University Press, New York, 2000.

§         Cocklin, Chris and Hain, Monique, Evaluation of the EIA for the Proposed Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project, Monash Environmental Institute, Monash University, Australia, December 2001.

Elhance, Arun P., Hydropolitics in the 3-rd World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River basins, Chapter 6, United States Institute for Peace, 1999.

Hirsch, Philip, Globalisation, Regionalisation and Local Voices:  The Asian Development Bank and Re-scaled Politics of Environment in the Mekong Region, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Nov. 2001, pp. 237-251.  (accessible through UT Library online)

Le Moigne, G., Recent Experience in Promoting Regional Collaboration in Water Resources Management Incentives and Benefits of Cooperation Between Riparian States in the Mekong and Nile Basins, in Regional Workshop on Cooperation in Shared Water Resources in Central Asia: Past Experience and Future Challenges, Asian Development Bank, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 26–28 September 2002 (http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2003/3WWF/CO_Shared_Water.pdf)

MSNBC Online, “Fish whopper: 646 pounds a freshwater record.”  1 Jul 2005 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8404622/.

Öjendal, Joakim, Vikrom Mathur and Mak Sithirith, Hydropower Site Selection Processes in the Se San and Sre Pok Basins, Environmental Governance in the Mekong, SEI/REPSI Report Series No. 4, Stockholm Environment Institute, 2002

Osborne, M., The Mekong: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000

Ringler, Claudia, Optimal Water Allocation in the Mekong River Basin, ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 38, Center for Development Research, Bonn, May 2001, pp. 6-19, 30-33 (Available online: http://www.zef.de/download/zef_dp/ZEF-DP-38.PDF)

The Australian Mekong Resource Centre. "The Mekong Basin: Basin at a Glance" The Mekong Basin (2002): 20 Feb. 2008

Water Policy International Ltd. "Mekong River Basin" The Water Page (2000): 20 Feb. 2008 < <www.africanwater.org/mekong_river.htm>.


For a geographic and physical description, read the following excerpt about the Niger River from a Food and Agriculture Organization report on irrigation potential of Africa (7 pages): http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4347E/w4347e0i.htm#the%20niger%20river%20basin

Gould, M. and F. Zobrist, "An Overview of Water Resources Planning in West Africa", World Development, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1717-1722, 1989. (Available Online: GouldandFrederick.pdf

Look over the WWF Niger River fact sheet for a conservation viewpoint: http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/africa/where/western_africa/river_niger/

Scan the “Potentialities of the Niger Basin” from the Niger Basin Authority website: http://www.abn.ne/webeng/nbainfo/nbainfo0/potent.html#population

Look at a self assessment of water issues prepared by Mali and submitted to the World Water Council (an NGO): http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/download/report_Mali_en.pdf

The Niger Basin Authority website:  http://www.abn.ne/webeng/index-eng.html

A paper on Transboundary Natural Resource Management in West Africa by Nijeholt, de Bie and Geerling: http://www.bsponline.org/bsp/publications/africa/108/108/titlepage.HTML


Agreement between the Government of the United Arab Republic and the Government of Sudan, 11/8/1959

Allan, J. Anthony , the Nile Basin: Evolving Approaches To Nile Waters Management, SOAS Water Issues Group, occasional Paper20, June 1999.

Beaumont, Peter, “The 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses”, Water Resources Development, Vol. 16, No. 4, 475-495, 2000.

El-Assuiti, I., State of Egypt's Waters, Third World Center for Water Management, 2003

Elhance, Arun P., Hydropolitics in the 3-rd World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River basins, Chapter 2, United States Institute for Peace, 1999.

Gleick, Peter H., Water and Conflict, Fresh ware Resources and international security

Le Moigne, G., Recent Experience in Promoting Regional Collaboration in Water Resources Management Incentives and Benefits of Cooperation Between Riparian States in the Mekong and Nile Basins, in Regional Workshop on Cooperation in Shared Water Resources in Central Asia: Past Experience and Future Challenges, Asian Development Bank, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 26–28 September 2002

Mekonen, Kefyalew , The Defects and Effect of past Treatise and Agreements on Nile Waters, Whose faults were they? http://www.ethiopians.com/abay/engin.html

Metawie, A. F., History of Co-operation in the Nile Basin, Water Resources Development, Vol. 20, No. 1, 47–63, March 2004

Nicol, A., The Nile: Moving Beyond Cooperation , Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

Nile Basin Initiative Website:  www.nilebasin.org

Okidi Odidi, Charles "International Laws and the Lake Victoria and Nile Basin: Natural Resources Development of the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya". Nairobi, Institute of Development Studies, (1979)

Tilahun Wondemeneh, "Egypt Imperial Aspiration Over Lake Tana and the Blue Nile". Addis Abiba, Addis AbIba University. 1979

Waterbury, J, The Nile Basin: National Determinants of Collective Action, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, 2002

Waterbury, J., and D. Whittington, Playing Chicken on the Nile? The Implications of Microdam Development in the Ethiopian Highlands and Egypt’s New Valley Project, Natural Resources Forum

Waterbury, J., “Between Unilateralism and Comprehensive Accords”, Water Resources Development, Vol. 13, No. 3, 279-789, 1997.

Whittington, Dale and Giorgio Guoriso, "Water Management Models in Practice: A case study of the Aswan high Dam". Amsterdam: Elservier Scientific, 1983 .

Wichelns, D., J. Barry, M. Muller, M. Nakao, L.D. Philo, A. Zitello, Co-operation Regarding Water and Other Resources Will Enhance Economic Development in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Water Resources Development, Vol. 19, No. 4, 535–552, December 2003

Zewdie, Bahiru, "Relation Between Ethiopia and the Sudan on the Western Ethiopian Frontier 1898-1935" PhD Thesis, University of London, 1976

Water and Religion

Chapter 9: Ownership and transfer of water and land in Islam, by Dante A Caponera. Found in “Water management in Islam,” edited by Naser I. Faruqui, et al. (2001) pp. 94-102. NOTE: text of this chapter is available online from Google Books. From the following link, simply enter the page number of interest in the Page field: http://books.google.com/books?id=UugAzosromcC&printsec=frontcover&dq

Lewis, Bernard. “I’m Right, You’re Wrong, Go to Hell.” Atlantic Monthly, May 2003.
< http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200305/lewis>

“Water management in Islam,” edited by Naser I. Faruqui, et al. (2002)
Chapter 1: Islam and water management: Overview and principles, by Naser I. Faruqui, pp. 1- 32.
Chapter 3: Islam and the environment, by Hussein A. Amery, pp. 39-48.
Chapter 7: Sociocultural acceptability of wastewater reuse in Palestine, by Nader Al Khateeb, pp. 79-84.
Chapter 8: Water rights and water trade: An Islamic perspective, by M. T. Kadouri, et al, pp. 85-93.
Chapter 9: Ownership and transfer of water and land in Islam, by Dante A Caponera, pp. 94-102.
Chapter 12: Management of shared waters: A comparison of international and Islamic law, by Iyad Hussein and Odeh Al-Jayyousi, pp. 128-135.



1987 Rhine Action Program for Ecological Rehabilitation (RAP)

1998, Convention on the Protection of the Rhine

Chichester, Page, Resurrection on the Rhine, International Wildlife Magazine, 1997 (www.nwf.org/intlwild/salmon.html)

Convention on the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution signed in 1963

Convention on the Protection of the Rhine, 1998 (www.internationalwaterlaw.org/No-Frames/RegionalDocs/Rhine_River.htm)

Curlee, Lillian, Steps toward reintroduction of natural systems into the management of the Rhine River, Restoration & Reclamation Review, 1999 (www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/99papers/curlee.htm)

Dieperink, Carel, International Regime Development: Lessons from the Rhine Catchment Area, TDRI Quarterly Review, 1997 (www.info.tdri.or.th/library/quarterly/text/s97_4.htm)

Drozdiak, William, Sewer of Europe, The Washington Post, 1996 (www.fh-koblenz.de/koblenz/remstecken/RhineRiver/960327rhine.WashingtonPost.html)

Frijters, I. D., and J. Leentvaar, PCCP Case Study: Rhine, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR) (www.iksr.org/icpr)

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution (ICPR)

Penzien, Christopher, Pollution and the Rhine: Progress and Predictions (http://www2.gvsu.edu/~penzienc/Rhine.html)

Program on the Sustainable Development of the Rhine (Rhine 2020)

Ruchay, Dietrich, Living with water: Rhine River basin management, Water Science and Technology, 1995, (www.iwaponline.com/wst/03108/0027/031080027.pdf)

Weber, Urs, The "Miracle" of the Rhine, the Courier UNESCO, 2000 (www.unesco.org/courier/2000_06/uk/planet.htm)

“Rhine”. United Nations Environment Program. 01 January 2005. < http://www.grid.unep.ch/product/publication/freshwater_europe/rhine.php>

Rio Grande

1889 Convention, to the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) (http://www.ibwc.state.gov/). 

1906 Convention (http://www.ibwc.state.gov/FORAFFAI/1906conv.HTM)

1944 Water Treaty (http://www.ibwc.state.gov/FORAFFAI/1944.HTM)

American Heritage River: http://www.epa.gov/rivers/98rivers/riogrande.html

Background information for HUD’s Report for the Task Force on the Economic Development of the Southwest Border

Borderland Studies Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio

Eaton, D.J.,  The State of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo : A Study of Water Resources Issues Along the Texas/Mexico Border (Profmex Monograph Series), 1987

Eaton, D.J. and David Hurlbut. “Challenges in the binational management of water resources in the Rio Grande/ Rio Bravo”, U.S. – Mexican Policy Studies Program. Policy reports No. 2.

Green Nature-RioGrande: http://greennature.com/article622.html

Handbook of Texas: http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/RR/rnr5.html

IBWC: http://www.ibwc.state.gov/, http://www.ibwc.state.gov/wad/rio_grande.htm

International Boundary and Water Commission

International Agreements Establishing and Institutionalizing the International Boundary and Water Commission (Available online)

Jones, P. A.; Compliance Mechanisms of International Water Agreements A Case of U.S.-Mexico Boundary Waters. Water International, v 25-4, 554-564, December 2000.

Legal resources: http://lawschool.unm.edu/library/water/links/riogrande.htm


Maps: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/txuhtml/runymaps.html

Natural Heritage Institute: http://www.n-h-i.org/Projects/InternationalRivers/RioGrande/RioGrande.html

New Mexico State University: http://wrri.nmsu.edu/publish/techrpt/tr317/downl.html

Pepin, M., PhD: “Texas Colonias: An Environmental Justice Case Study” (specially parts I & 3)

Photos: http://www.photovault.com/Link/Nature/Texas/x/Places/RioGrandeRiver.html

Rio Grande: a confluence of waters, nations & cultures

Rio Grande Alliance, “Water quality in the Rio Grande Watershed: A resource for action taking”, Chapter 1 (in PDF format), (Available online). 

Rio Grande water flow (Available online).

Rio Grande / Rio Bravo Coalition: http://www.rioweb.org/basinfacts.html

Synopsis of International Agreements Establishing and Institutionalizing the International Boundary and Water commission.

Tate, D., Thesis

Texas A&M University: http://riogrande.tamu.edu/, http://www.brc.tamus.edu/srin/projects/tnrcc.html

Texas A&M University-El Paso: http://elpaso.tamu.edu/Research/wateris.htm

Texas Center for Policy Studies: http://www.texascenter.org/borderwater/rio_conchos/presentations.htm

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality: http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/admin/topdoc/pd/020/00-10/riogrande.html, http://txwww.cr.usgs.gov/rgbdb/

Univ of New Mexico (Upper Basin): http://www.unm.edu/~wrp/urg.htm

Upper Rio Grande Study: http://www.waterinthewest.org/reading/readingfiles/fedreportfiles/upperrio.pdf

US EPA: http://es.epa.gov/ncer/final/grants/95/water/schmandt.html

USGS: http://nm.water.usgs.gov/mrg/index.htm

Wild and Scenic River: http://www.nps.gov/rigr/

Water in the West: Rio Grande (excellent overview): http://www.waterinthewest.org/riverbasins/riogrande/riogrande.htm

Water and Sustainable Development in the Binational Lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin. Executive summary, March, 2000

Article V and VII: Treaty of peace between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic. February 2, 1848.

                   Can be found at:  http://www.ibwc.state.gov/Files/Treaty_of_1848.pdf

Equitable Distribution of the Waters of the Rio Grande. Convention between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic. February 2, 1848.

Can be found at:  http://www.ibwc.state.gov/Files/1906Conv.pdf

Enriquez Coyro, Ernesto. “El Tratado entre México y los Estados Unidos de América sobre Ríos Internacionales”  Comisión Nacional del Agua. México, Dec. 2003.

Griswold del Castillo, Richard. "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: a legacy of conflict." University of Oklahoma Press (1990). Available from the UT Library as an electronic resource.

"Gadsden Purchase, 1853-1854" U.S. Department of State. 8 Feb. 2008. 9 Feb. 2008        < http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/dwe/87721.htm>

J Martinez, Oscar. "U.S-Mexico Borderlands. Historical and Contemporary Perspectives." (1996)                                                                                                             < http://books.google.com/books?id=bAbVV1Leow8C&printsec=frontcover>.

Treaty of February 3, 1944. Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers
and of the Rio Grande. Can be found at http://www.ibwc.state.gov/Files/1944Treaty.pdf

Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems:

Turton, A. R.,  Water and State Sovereignty: The Hydropolitical Challenge for States in Arid Regions, MEWREW Occasional Paper No. 5, Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), March 1, 1999 (http://www.soas.ac.uk/Geography/WaterIssues/OccasionalPapers/AcrobatFiles/OCC05.PDF)

Turton, A.R., Water and State Sovereignty, MEWREW Occasional Paper No. 5, Water Issues Study Group,School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), 1999

Turton, A.R. & Henwood, R. (Eds.), Hydropolitics in the Developing World: A Southern African Perspective, African Water Issues Research Unit (AWIRU), 2002 (Available online:  http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/Articles/HydroPolitics-S-Africa.htm)

Vaz, A. C., and P. van der Zaag, Sharing the Incomati Waters: Cooperation and Competition in the Balance, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003


Water for Peace in the Middle East and Southern Africa, Green Cross International, 2000.

Article on farming/land issues in Zimbabwe and South Africa and their relationship to water issues:

Article bemoaning the demise of tourism at Victoria Falls:

Article on water conservation projects in Botswana:

Granit, Jakob. “Management of Shared Water Resources in Southern Africa and the Role of External Assistance”. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Nov. 2000  http://www.sahims.net/doclibrary/09_03/17/briefcases/water/SIDA_Management%20of%20shared%20water%20resources.pdf

Conley, A.H. “A Synoptic View of Water Resources in Southern Africa”. Strategic Planning, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa. Oct. 1996

Turton, A.R. “Water and State Sovereignty: The Hydropolitical Challenge For States in Arid Regions” Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies. March 1999 

Mexico - Guatemala

Hamann. R. and Ankersen. T., September 1996. The Usumacinta River: Building a Framework for Cooperation between Mexico and Guatemala, September 1996. Available online: http://www.planeta.com/ecotravel/mexico/usumacinta2.html

Mexico Tercer Milenio Website: Boca del Cerro Binational Project - Mexico (Chiapas, Tabasco and Guatemala)http://www.mexicotm.com/interior/p/p_boca_cerroenglish.html

 Central American Report. Controversial proposal to dam the Usumacinta River resurfaces, p. 4-5. November 2002. Available online: http://www.inforpressca.com/CAR/homes/h2942.pdf

Bull, B. December 2002. New Regionalism – Old Elites: Change and continuity in the remaking of Meso America. Available online: http://folk.uio.no/bbull/BISA paper.doc

Inter-American Development Bank - Plan Puebla-Panama:  http://www.iadb.org/ppp/

IUCN Website. Conservation and Sustainable Management of the Tacaná River Basin (México, Guatemala). http://www.uicnhumedales.org/english/tacana.htm

Mader, R. Usumacinta River Guide: http://www.planeta.com/ecotravel/mexico/usumacinta.html

IRN Declaration from the Mesoamerican Forum for Life.  Available online: http://www.irn.org/programs/latamerica/020323.declaration.html

Middle East

Allen, J. A., The Middle East Water Question: Hydropolitics and the Global Economy, St. Martins Press, New York, 2001.

Hillel, D., Rivers of Eden: The Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Water for Peace in the Middle East and Southern Africa, Green Cross International, 2000.

Amery, Hussein A.  and Aaron T. Wolf, Water in the Middle East: A Geography of Peace, University of Texas Press, Austin, 2000

Faruqui, Naser I., Asit K. Biswas, and Murad J. Bino, Water Management in Islam, IDRC, U.N. University, Tokyo, 2001


 The Himba and the Dam (www.scientificamerican.com/2001/0601issue/0601ezzell.html#further)

World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, 2000. Available at www.dams.org/report/ 


Bindra, S.P., Abosh, W., 2001, Recent developments in water desalination: Desalination, vol. 136 (2001), pp. 49-56.
(Available online: http://desline.com/articoli/4056.pdf)

Desalination http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination

Desalination by reverse osmosis http://www.oas.org/osde/publications/Unit/oea59e/ch20.htm

Drink a cup of seawater? http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/drinkseawater.html

Einav, R., Harussi, K., Perry, D., 2002, The footprint of the desalination processes on the environment: Desalination, vol. 152 (2002), pp. 141-154.

Is Desalination the Answer? http://www.fdu.edu/newspubs/magazine/03su/desalination.html

Ludwig, H., Methodology for Selecting Desalination Processes in Water/Energy Supply Structures
(Available online: http://www.sustdev.org/explore/water_res_man/edu3_pdfs/SD13-35.pdf)

Maxon, R., 2003, Is Desalination the Answer?: FDU Magazine, Summer 2003
(Available online: http://www.fdu.edu/newspubs/magazine/03su/desalination.html)

Modeling and Control of Desalination Processes
(Available online: http://www.lfpt.rwth-aachen.de/Research/Completed/desalination.html)

Recent Developments in Water Desalination http://www.desline.com/articoli/4056.pdf

RO Desalination Activity in Texas http://wrri.nmsu.edu/conf/forum/Burnett.pdf

Saie, M.H., Yahya, M.H., Moneer, A.D., 2001, Financial, economical, and technical aspects of establishing remote desalination plants: Desalination, vol. 135 (2001), pp. 25-42.

Seawater Desalination Fact Sheet  (Available online: http://www.sdcwa.org/manage/pdf/DesalFactsheetJune2003.pdf)

Seawater desalination in the Arabian Gulf countries.  http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E09.htm#2.9

Reverse-osmosis desalination.  http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E0k.htm#A 



Seawater desalination n the Arabian Gulf countries
(Available online: http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E09.htm)

Water Technology – Ashkelon Desalination Plant, Israel http://www.water-technology.net/projects/israel/

Water Technology – Tampa Bay Desalination Plant, FL, USA http://www.water-technology.net/projects/tampa/

World’s Water – Water Data http://www.worldwater.org/waterData.htm

Review of the Desalination and Water Purification Roadmap. National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2004.

Central Asia and Aral Sea

Antipova, E., A. Zyryanov, D. McKinney, A. Savitsky, Optimization of Syr Darya Water and Energy Uses, Water International, 27(4): 504-516, 2002

Central Asia Regional Water, Environment and Energy Agreements

Chait, E.A., Water Politics of Syr Darya Basin, Central Asia: Question of State Interests, London School of Economics and Political Science (Available online)

Chazournes, L. B. de, Elements of a Legal Strategy for Managing International Watercourses: The Aral Sea Basin, World Bank (Available online)

Dukhovny, V. and V. Sokolov, Lessons on Cooperation Building To Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003

Le Moigne, G., Shared Water Resources Management in the Aral Sea Basin: Issues and Opportunities, in Regional Workshop on Cooperation in Shared Water Resources in Central Asia: Past Experience and Future Challenges, Asian Development Bank, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 26–28 September 2002

McKinney, D.C., Cooperative Management of Transboundary Water Resources in Central Asia, in In the Tracks of Tamerlane-Central Asia’s Path into the 21st Century, D. Burghart and T. Sabonis-Helf (eds.), National Defense University Press, 2003. (in press) (Available online: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/papers/aral/CentralAsiaWater-McKinney.pdf)

McKinney, D.C., Basin Scale Integrated Water Resources Management In Central Asia, Third World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, March 16-23, 2003

O'Hara, Sarah L., Central Asia’s Water Resources: Contemporary and Future Management Issues, Water Resources Development, Vol. 16, No. 3, 423–441, 2000 (Available online)

E. Weinthal, Central Asia: Aral Sea Problem, Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 5, No. 6 • March 2000 (Available online: http://www.foreignpolicy-infocus.org/pdf/vol5/06ifaral.pdf)

Wegerich, K., Not a Simple Path: A sustainable Future for Central Asia, Occasional Paper No 28, Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, 2001

For overviews of each country and USAID’s focus http://www.usaid.gov/locations/europe_eurasia/car/briefers/transboundary_water.html

Webpage for maps and background info (check out the animation) http://www.dfd.dlr.de/app/land/aralsee/



Micklin, P. "The Aral Sea disaster." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35.1

Nandalal, K. "Strategic decision support for resolving conflict over water sharing among countries along the Syr Darya River in the Aral Sea Basin." Journal of water resources planning and management 133.4 (2007):289-299.

Nezlin, N. "Interannual variations of the discharge of Amu Darya and Syr Darya estimated from global atmospheric precipitation." Journal of marine systems 47.1-4 (2004):67-75.

Pala, C. "Ecology - Once a terminal case, the north Aral Sea shows new signs of life." Science 312.5771 (2006):183-183.

Central Asia Water Info Portal: http://www.cawater-info.net/aral/index_e.htm


The Senegal River:  Release of an Artificial Flood to Maintain Traditional Floodplain Production SystemsThe Water and Nature Initiative of the IUCN – Case Studies. 2003.  IUCN.  11 Oct. 2005   (http://www.waterandnature.org/flow/cases/Senegal.pdf)

Horowitz, Michael M. An Alternative for Managing Tropical Floodplain Rivers.  BASIS Brief.  Number 1 (December 1999): 8 pages. 11 Oct. 2005 (http://www.ies.wisc.edu/ltc/live/basbrief01.pdf)

Finger D., Teodoru, C.  Senegal River Case StudyThe Science and Politics of International Freshwater Management.  November 2003.  Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology.  24 Oct. 2005  (http://www.eawag.ch/research_e/apec/seminars/Case%20studies/2003/Senegal%20River.pdf)

World Water Assessment Programme.  “Chapter 20 - Senegal River Basin, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal.” THE UN WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT Water for People, Water for Life.  March 2003.  UNESCO.  6 Oct. 2005 (http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/case_studies/senegal_river/senegal_river.pdf)


http://books.nap.edu/html/srb11/senegal.pdf (especially pgs 1-8, 30-34)


Tigris - Euphrates

Al Awar, Ziad, The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP): A Socio-Economical Study from the Sustainable Development Perspective, May, 2003 (Available online: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/ce397/Topics/Tigris/termproject3.pdf)

Altinbilek D., Development and management of the Euphrates-Tigris basin, International Journal of Water Resources Development, Volume 20, Number 1, March 2004, pp. 15-33 (Available Online in UT Austin Library)

Belul, Mehmet Lutfi, Hydropolitics of the Euphrates-Tigris Basin, Master Thesis, 1996, Graduate School of Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University

Bilen Ozden, Turkey and Water Issues in the Middle East, 1997, Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), Regional Development Administration

Brismar, A., The Atatürk Dam project in south-east Turkey: Changes in objectives and planning over time, Natural Resources Forum, 26, 101-112, 2002 (Available Online in UT Austin Library)

Elhance, Arun P., Hydropolitics in the 3-rd World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River basins, Chapter 4, United States Institute for Peace, 1999.

Kaya Ibrahim, The Euphrates-Tigris basin: An overview and opportunities for cooperation under international law (http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln44/kaya.html)

Kor, Tevfik Emin, ICE Case Studies, Tigris-Euphrates River Dispute, November, 1997 (http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/tigris.htm)

Lorenz F.M. and E.J. Erickson, The Euphrates Triangle: Security Implications of the Southeastern Anatolia Project, National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 1999 (http://www.aepi.army.mil/internet/security-anatolia-project-euphrates.pdf)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Irrigation, Republic of Iraq, The division of waters in the International law, Facts on the Joint Waters with Turkey,1999 (http://www.uruklink.net/mofa

Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Water: A source of conflict of cooperation in the Middle East? (http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupa/ac/aci/default.htm

Tortajada, C., Evaluation of Actual Impacts of the Ataturk Dam, Third World Center for Water Management, 2002.

Freeman, Kevin. 2001. “Water Wars? Inequalities in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin.” Geopolitics. Vol.6, No.2: 127-140 Autumn.

Dogan Altinbilek, “Development and Management of the Euphrates–Tigris Basin,” Water Resources Development 20 (1) (2004): 15-33.

ZAWAHRI, N.A.: Stabilizing Iraq's water supply: what the Euphrates and Tigris rivers can learn from the Indus. In: THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY, 27(6) 2006: 1041-1058.

US - Canada

1909 “Treaty Relating to Boundary Waters between the United States and Canada” (Boundary Waters Treaty)

Boundary Waters Treaty   http://www.ijc.org/ijcweb-e.html

International Joint Commission- What It Is, How It Works.  http://www.ijc.org/ijcweb-e.html

The IJC and the 21st Century http://www.ijc.org/php/publications/html/21ste.htm


Map of the Great Lakes Basin  http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/Communications/greatlakes/glacialgift/map.html

Red River Basin Map: http://www.nwrdc.org/red_river_basin.htm

Saga of Canada/US Waterway Diversion Battles http://winnipeg.about.com/aboutcanada/winnipeg/library/weekly/aa011500a.htm

Transboundary Watersheds, International Joint Commission, December 2000

The Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System website: http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/home.html

The IJC website: http://www.ijc.org/en/home/main_accueil.htm

Great Lakes Information Network: http://www.great-lakes.net/

Devils Lake:





Water Marketing

Baglole, Joel.  "Storm Brews Over Plan to Export Canadian Water to U.S." Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2001.  www.ce.utexas.edu/stu/kracmadr/canada.bmp

"Beyond Levels and Flows: Sustaining the Great Lakes in the Next Millennium", Canadian Environmental Law Association, http://www.cela.ca/water/bg-ijc.htm

Canadian Environmental Law Association, "Beyond Levels and Flows:  Sustaining the Great Lakes in the Next Millennium."  March 5, 1999, www.cela.ca/water/bg-ijc.htm

EPIC "MAD RIVER WATER BAGGING PLAN", http://www.wildcalifornia.org/projects/madriver/index.html

Gleick, Peter H.  "Approach 2, Redistribute Supplies:  Bagged and Dragged."  Scientific American, February, 2001.  http://www.scientificamerican.com/2001/0201issue/0201how.html - 2

Geddes, John.  "Should Canada Sell its Water?" Maclean's, March 6, 2001.  www.cquest.utoronto.ca/env/env234y/bht/water.html

Kracman, D., "International Water Marketing -- Canada", July 5, 2001, http://www.waterbank.com/Newsletters/nws37.html

Kracman, D., "Liquid Capital: Water Marketing in the Twenty-First Century", University of Texas, 2001. (Kracman-WaterMarketing.pdf)
especially pgs 1-10

O'Malley, Martin and Bowman, John.  "The Future of Canada's Water." CBC News, June, 2001.  http://cbc.ca/news/indepth/water/

“Reasons to Oppose the Mad River Water Bags”  Community Clean Water Institute http://www.ccwi.org/issues/waterrights.htm#madriverbags

Saliba, Bonnie Colby and Bush, David B.  Water Markets in Theory and Practice:  Market Transfers, Water Values and Public Policy.  Boulder:  Westview Press, Inc., 1987.

“Sea-going water bags to quench world thirst?” Planet Ark http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/13449/story.htm

Shrybman, S., "The Accord to Prohibit Bulk Water Removal - Will it Actually Hold Water?", BC Freshwater Workshop, May 9, 2000 (WestCoastLaw.pdf)

"Stop the Mad Water Grab!", About Friends of the Gualala River, http://www.gualalariver.org/export/madriver.html

“Turkey to pump water to Cyprus”  BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1754859.stm

Matthew D. Davis and Jay R Lund. The Chilean Water Market System and Obstacles to Efficient Water Use. 1999. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis.

Donoso, G., J.P. Montero y S. Vicuña. Analysis of the market of water use right in the basins Maipo and Paloma System in Chile. 2003. Pontific University Catholic from Chile. Document in Spanish.

Terence R. Lee and Andrei S. Juravlev. Prices, property and markets in water allocation. 1998. Economic Commission for Latin American and Caribbean

Website of the Water General Direction from Chile. http://www.dga.cl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&wrap=Publicaciones%20en%20Linea&Itemid=329

Gomez Lobo. The Water Cost. Department of Economy. University of Chile. http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/water/pdf/GomezLobo/. Document in Spanish

US - Mexico Border

Border 2012 U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Program, Goals and Objectives, Border2012Goals-Objet word document, 2003. 

Border XXI Framework, http://www.epa.gov/usmexicoborder/2001/ef.htm, Border2012Framework pdf file

Border 2012 Framework: U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Program, http://www.epa.gov/r6border/intro.htm, Border2012Framework pdf file, Full text of

Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) Website: http://www.cocef.org/englishbecc.html

Bordering the future. “Environment: Common ground”, July 1988. http://www.window.state.tx.us/taxinfo/taxforms/96-599/chap09.pdf.

IBWC (International Boundary And Water Commission) Website:  http://www.ibwc.state.gov/

IBWC. “Joint measures to improve the quality of the waters of the Rio Grande at Laredo, Texas/Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas”. Minute No. 279. August 28, 1989. http://www.ibwc.state.gov/FORAFFAI/MINUTES/minindex.HTM

Jones, P, The U.S. Mexico Boundary Waters Regime and North American Environmental Agreements: What Lessons for International Agreements’ Compliance Mechanisms? Available online: http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/car/html/car3_article7.htm.

Maquilas / Export Processing Zones: http://www.maquilasolidarity.org/resources/maquilas/

Marty, Frank, 2001: Managing international rivers  Problems, politics and institutions. (Bern: Peter Lang).

NAFTA and the environment. 1998 Senate Interim Committee on the North American Free Trade Agreement, page 49-63. http://www.senate.state.tx.us/75r/senate/commit/archive/IC/IC14.PDF

Natural Heritage Institute and Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superior de Monterrey. “Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Designing a Common Future. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-national River Basin. Project Description” Available online:  http://www.n-h-i.org/Projects/InternationalRivers/RioGrande/ProjectDescription.pdf

New River Petitioned Public Health Consultation Imperial County, California February 28, 1996

Reflections on Water: New approaches to transboundary Conflicts and Cooperation, Chapter 7:  Discourses and Water in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region by Pamela Doughman

Rio Grande water flow. http://www.ibwc.state.gov/wad/rio_grande.htm  

Synopsis of International Agreements Establishing and Institutionalizing the International Boundary and Water Commission. http://www.ibwc.state.gov/FORAFFAI/synopsis.HTM  

U.S. Mexico Boundary Waters Regime and North American Environmental Agreements: What Lessons for International Water Agreements' Compliance Mechanisms? http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/car/html/car3_article7.htm

“Water quality in the Rio Grande Watershed: A resource for action taking”, Chapter 3, from Rio Grande Alliance. http://www.riogrande.org/programs/wsguide.htm

Water Quality in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region. BorderLines 44 (Vol. 6, No. 2, April 1998). Available online: http://americaspolicy.org/borderlines/1998/bl44/bl44wq_body.html

Water and sustainable development in the binational lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin. Final Report. Chapter 6: Water quality. http://harc.edu/mitchellcenter/mexico/mexico_reports/ch06_water_quality.pdf

Water Quality in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region: http://www.us-mex.org/borderlines/1998/bl44/bl44wq.html



http://www.rioweb.org/tour/  (browse)


United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Secreatria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Border 2012: U.S. – Mexico Environmental Program, EPA-160-R-03-001, 2003.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.-Mexico Border 2012 Framework.  http://www.epa.gov/r6border/intro.htm, accessed October 10, 2005


Law of the River:
1922 Colorado River Compact apportioned 7.5 MAF to Lower Basin States and 7.5 MAF to Upper Basin States, with an additional 1 MAF beneficial consumptive use in the Lower Basin. Requires Upper Basin to deliver minimum 75 MAF/10yrs at Lee Ferry. (Any Mexico Treaty amounts to come equally from Upper and Lower Basin, and Upper Basin delivery to lower basin to increase accordingly)
1928 Boulder Canyon Project Act authorized Hoover Dam and All American Canal. Apportioned Lower Colorado River water CA - 4.4 MAF; AZ - 2.8 MAF; NV - 0.3 MAF (amounts not ratified until 1964)
1944 Mexican Water Treaty 1.5 MAF to Mexico
1948 Upper Colorado River Basin Compact. Arizona was apportioned 50,000 AF of water for territory in Upper Colorado River Basin drainage,
remaining distributed based on these percentages: Colorado, 51.75%; New Mexico, 11.25%; Utah, 23.00%; and Wyoming, 14.00%. 
1956 Colorado River Storage Project Act.  Authorized several dams including Glen Canyon Dam to allow for upstream storage and development of upper basin while still meeting required delivery to lower basin.
1964 Arizona vs. California. U.S. Supreme Court Decree. Ratification of 1928 apportionment of the Colorado River water supply. (mainstream vs. tributary flow clarification) Also Indian Rights allocations 0.9 MAF.
1968 Colorado River Basin Project Act. Authorized construction of the Central Arizona Project. Set forth law governing the distribution and use of the CAP water. Describes priority of rights in times of shortage (California and other senior right holders guaranteed their apportionment before CAP water diverted)
1974 Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act. Authorized works to control salinity of Colorado River water below Imperial Dam as part of Mexican Treaty obligation (IBWC Minute 242)

1944 Treaty with Mexico (Articles 10-15)

Application of the US Endangered Species Act across international borders: the case of the Colorado River delta, Mexico
Environmental Science & Policy 3 (2000)

AZ vs Calif (legal allocations irrigation)

Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC)

California legal recommendations

Colorado River System Consumptive Uses and Losses Reports

California's Colorado River Water Use Plan (Section on International Aspects p. 90-96)

Colorado River Compact

Defenders of Wildlife - Groups Request Amendment to U.S. - Mexico River Treaty to Allocate Water for Wildlife

"A Delta Once More" (warning! - large file 1.9M pdf)

Delta Ecological (reference to international law, ESA, etc.)

Flow info lower basin

IBWC Colorado River Summary

IBWC Minute No. 242 (August 30, 1973)

Imperial Irrigation District Rights and Water Transfer to San Diego

Implementation Agreement for Secretarial Actions Associated with California Parties' Proposed Quantification Settlement Agreement and other Related Federal Actions, including Implementation of an Inadvertent Overrun Policy, Lower Colorado River, Arizona, California, and Nevada http://www.lc.usbr.gov/~pao/01news/FR-MAR9.html

Implement International Agreement for Deliveries to Tijuana, Baja California, of a Part of Mexico's Colorado River Waters Through the Southern California Aqueducts; Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (dated March 13, 2001) http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2001/April/Day-13/i9156.htm

Law of the River

Laws and rights (Arizona)

Legal framework (from USBR)

New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission (ISC) Annual Report 1999-2000

Remarks by Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt

Response to original version of above report (Merritt)

Section 1512 of the U.S. code on the Colorado River Basin Project

Sharing Colorado River Water: History, Public Policy and the Colorado River Compact

Short history of treaty negotiations between the U.S. and Mexico

U.S. Code: Title 43, Chapter 32

U.S. Mexico Boundary Waters Regime and North American Environmental Agreements: What Lessons for International Water Agreements' Compliance Mechanisms? http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/car/html/car3_article7.htm

Water Rights (California)

Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission http://www.den.doi.gov/wwprac/, http://www.den.doi.gov/wwprac/reports/colorado.pdf

Yuma Desalting Plant


Bellagio Draft Treaty: A review

Caron, D. D. : The Bellagio Draft Treaty: An Agreement Concerning the Use of Transboundary Groundwaters http://www.law.berkeley.edu/faculty/ddcaron/Courses/iel/ie01005.htm

Caron, D. D. : The Need for International Cooperation in Groundwater Management http://www.law.berkeley.edu/faculty/ddcaron/Courses/iel/ie02008.htm

Eaton & Hurlbut; Groundwater; chapter 3 in: Challenges in the Binational Management of Water Resources in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. US-Mexican Policy Studies Program. Policy Report no. 2. LBJ School of Public Affairs. The University of Texas at Austin (EatonCh3.pdf)

Eckstein, G. E.: Hydrologic Reality: International Water Law and Transboundary Ground-Water Resources http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/Articles/GlobalSouth.htm

Eckstein, Gabriel, Application of International Water Law to Transboundary Groundwater Resources, and the Slovak-Hungarian Dispute Over Gabcikovo-Nagymaros, 19 Suffolk Transnt l L.R. 67 (1995) http://internationalwaterlaw.org/Articles/TransboundaryGW.htm

Fabrice Degroote: CUSTOM AND EQUITY INGREDIENTS OF THE TRANSBOUNDARY GROUNDWATER RECIPE http://www.law.berkeley.edu/faculty/ddcaron/Courses/iel/ie02007.htm

Hebard, E. M.: Toward jointly managing a transboundary aquifer: Creating a binational dialogue through community participation and education http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln44/hebardfinal.html

IAH, UNESCO, FAO Working Group Meeting 27th -28th March 2000, UNESCO, Paris TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (TARM) http://www.iah.org/articles/may2000/art001.htm  

International association of Hydrogeologists (IAH/AIH) http://www.iah.org/

International Water Law Project: bibliography on Groundwater http://internationalwaterlaw.org/Bibliography/Groundwater.htm

Seoul Rules on International Groundwaters 1986 http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/IntlDocs/Seoul_Rules.htm







AAAS - Plata Basin Workshop, "Ecosystem Dynamics and Essential Human Needs: Developing a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda in the Plata Basin", April 8-10, 2002 Regente Palace Hotel, Buenos Aires, http://www.aaas.org/international/lac/plata/report_english.shtml

Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay: Agreement on Parana River Projects (Done at President Stroessner City, Paraguay, October 19, 1979), http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/RegionalDocs/Parana1.htm


Baschek, Bjorn and Michaela Hegglin, The Plata-Parana river basin, summer/autumn 2002, IAC ETH, http://www.eawag.ch/research_e/apec/seminars/Case%20studies/Plata_Parana.pdf


Elhance, Arun P., Assistant Professor of Economic and Political Geography, Department of Geography, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/homepage_docs/pubs_docs/S&P_docs/S&P_VII-2/hydropolitics.html

Climatology and hydrology of the Plata Basin,  http://www.clivar.org/publications/wg_reports/vamos/pdf_files/laplata.pdf

Elhance, Arun P., The Parana - La Plata Basin, Hydropolitics in the Third World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River Basins, United States Institute for Peace, Washington DC, 1999, pp. 25-52.

Green Cross International, Water Conflict Prevention, Fiona Curtin Program Coordinator, http://www.greencrossitalia.it/ita/acqua/wfp/pdf/greencrosswfp_plata.pdf or

Itaipu Dam official web site, http://www.itaipu.gov.py/

Tucci, Carlos E. and Robin T. Clarke, Environmental Issues in the la Plata Basin, Water Resources Development, Vol. 14, N0. 2, pp. 157-173, 1998 (Available online)

Water for Peace in the LaPlata, Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential, UNESCO, Paris, 2003 

Water as a Human Right

Gleick, Peter H., The Human Right To Water, Water Policy, Vol.1, No. 5, pp. 487-503, 1999.  (Available online: http://www.pacinst.org/gleickrw.pdf ) (Especially sections 2 & 4)

United Nations and the Right to Water: http://www.citizen.org/cmep/Water/humanright/articles.cfm?ID=8574

Barlow, M., Soderbaum, P., Workshop 4 (synthesis): responsibilities linked to "human rights approach" to water- rules and roles, Water Science and Technology, Vol 43, No. 4, pp. 141-142, 2001.

De Lange, M., Water law and human rights- roles and responsibilities, Water Science and Technology, Vol 43, No. 4, pp 143-150.


Camdessus, M. and J. Winpenny, Financing Water For All: Report of the World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure, Global Water Partnership, and the World Water Council, March 2003 (Available online: www.gwpforum.org/gwp/library/FinPanRep.MainRep.pdf

CBC News Q & A www.cbc.ca/news/features/water/qanda.html

Financing Transboundary Water Management, Water Policy Brief, Water Policy Programme No 2, Overseas Development Institute 2002 (Available online: http://www.odi.org.uk/rpeg/wpp/PolicyBrief-FinancingTransboundaryWater.pdf)

Gleick, P., Wolff, G., Chalecki, E., and Reyes, R., The New Economy of Water: The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water, Pacific Institute, 2002 (Available online: http://www.pacinst.org/reports/new_economy_of_water.pdf)

Hukka, J. and Katko, T, Refuting the Paradigm of Water Services Privatisation, Natural Resources Fourm 27 142-155

Jacobs, Jeffrey W. and Charles W. Howe, Key Issues and Experience in US Water Services Privatization

Rogers, P., R. Bhatia, and A. Huber, Water as a Social and Economic Good: How to Put the Principle into Practice, Global Water Partnership, 1998 (Available online: http://www.gwpforum.org/gwp/library/Tac2.pdf)








Latin America

Strategy for Integrated Water Resources Management, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.C., December 1998

Shared water resources protocol Chile-Argentina

Act of Puerto Montt, Chile, 1978, Argentina-Chile, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/PDFFILES/TREATIES/ARG-CHL1978PM.pdf

A list of river basins and countries who share them,   http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/publications/register/tables/IRB_southamerica.html   

A Role for River Basin Organizations within an Integrated Water Resources Management Strategy, http://www.oieau.fr/ciedd/contributions/atriob/contribution/iadb.htm

Demographic information:

Chile   http://www.abacci.com/atlas/demography.asp?countryID=169

Argentina  http://www.abacci.com/atlas/demography.asp?countryID=130

Agenda 21 http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/index.htm

The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development,  http://www.wmo.ch/web/homs/documents/english/icwedece.html#p1

Educational Material for School Children about Integrated Water Resource Management, Maria Angelica Alegria, Hydraulic Civil  Engineer, Direccion General de Aguas – Ministerio de Obras Publicas de Chile,   http://www.dubrovnik2003.fsb.hr/prijave/data/dubrovnik2003_abstract_121.doc  (*interesting*)

Water governance in Latin America and the Caribbean, Peter Rogers,   http://www.iadb.org/sds/doc/ENV-PRogers-WaterGovernanceinLAC.pdf  (*very good description of present and future of the region*)

Water management at the river basin level: Challenges in Latin America, Axel Dourojeanni,  http://www.inbo-news.org/ag2002/WaterManage.pdf

International Development Agencies and Financial Institutions

Hirji,R., and H. O. Ibrekk, Environmental and Water Resources Management, Environment and Strategy Papers, No. 2, World Bank, 2001

Salman, S.M.A. , and L.B. de Chazournes (Eds), International Watercourses: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, World Bank Technical Paper No. 414, 1998 Online

World Bank, Efficient, Sustainable Service for All? An OED Review of the World Bank’s Assistance to Water Supply and Sanitation, Report No.: 26443, 2003 Online

Water Resources Sector Strategy: Strategic Directions for World Bank Engagement, February 2003 Online

Water for All: The Water Policy of the Asian Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Manila, 2001 Online

World Bank Operations: http://go.worldbank.org/1YXPMBNDO0



Millenium Development Goals

Gleick, Peter H. with the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. 2004. The world’s water 2004-2005: The biennial report on freshwater resources.  Island Press, Washington, DC.

Global Water Partnership. 2003. Report of the World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure: Financing Water For All.  Online at: http://www.gwpforum.org/gwp/library/FinPanRep.MainRep.pdf

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2005. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time.  The Penguin Press, New York.

UN. 2000. Millennium Development Goals.  http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

UN. 2004.
Millennium Development Goals: Progress Report.  http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/mdg2004chart.pdf

UN Millennium Project. 2005. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Overview.  Online at: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/overviewEngi-1LowRes.pdf  

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. 2004. Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: a mid-term assessment of progress.  Online at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/en/jmp04.pdf

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. 2004. Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: a mid-term assessment of progress.  Online at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/en/jmp04.pdf


UN. 2000. Millennium Development Goals.  http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/


UN. 2004. Millennium Development Goals: Progress Report. 



Global Water Partnership. 2003. Report of the World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure: Financing Water For All.

Online at: http://www.gwpforum.org/gwp/library/FinPanRep.MainRep.pdf


Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2005. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time.  The Penguin Press, New York.


Gleick, Peter H. with the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. 2004. The world’s water 2004-2005: The biennial report on freshwater resources.  Island Press, Washington, DC.


UN Millennium Project. 2005. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Overview.  Online at:



Nakayama, M., Politics behind Zambezi Action Plan, Water Policy, 1:397±409, 1998

Shela, O. N., Management of shared river basins: the case of the Zambezi River, Water Policy 2:65±81, 2000.

Some Quotes

“Since Egypt is totally dependent on the waters of the Nile and since it has long been the largest consumer of the basin’s waters, in conducting hydropolitics with other riparian states it has mostly emphasized the triple doctrines of primary need, prior use, and acquired water rights.”  Arun P. Elhance (1999)


We recognize that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the world’s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs.

-UN Millennium Declaration, 2000

hail to thee, O Nile, that issues from the earth and comes to keep Egypt alive! 
When he rises, then the land is in jubilation, then every belly is in joy


The river Rhine, it is well known,
Doth wash your city of Cologne;
But tell me, Nymphs, what power divine,
Shall henceforth wash the river Rhine?
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1828)

The river joins us, and so we join together

Unfortunately, our affluent society has also been an effluent society.
Hubert H. Humphrey

In our world a dam is a small thing that gives cattle water. 

What you are talking about is something else and will finish the Himba.
Chief Katjira Muniombara

This area is the life of the people, of all the people who stay there, of all the people who were born in the area. The Tjimba, who might not have livestock, and the Himba, who might have livestock, we all need Epupa and we all must object to the dam, since if it would really be built, there will be death!
Hikuminue Kapika (Himba Headman)

You cannot fill the Aral Sea with tears
Anonymous Uzbek poet

The rain is plentious but, by God's decree,
Only a third is meant for you and me;
Two-thirds are taken by the growing things
Or vanish Heavenward on vapour's wings:
Nor does it mathematically fall
With social equity on one and all.
The population's habit is to grow
In every region where the water's low:
Nature is blamed for failings that are Man's,
And well-run rivers have to change their plans.
Sir Alan Herbert

The mark of a successful man is one that has spent an entire day on the bank of a river without feeling guilty about it.                                                          Chinese Philosopher

'The north changes the world. In the winter the snow comes, covers the land. When it breaks in the spring, the mountains and hills will gather all the deteriorated stuff and bring it down to the Columbia, the main channel, and take it away. What goes out in the ocean will never return. And we have a brand new world in spring. The high water takes everything out, washes everything down. That's why we pray to the water, every morning and night.' This is not an attitude found in the Army Corps of Engineers literature.

Martin Louie, Sr., an elder of the Colville Tribe displaced by Grand Coulee Dam, William Dietrich, Northwest Passage

The many names of the Danube












& Bulgarian





La situation est grave, mais pas desespérée.

India and Pakistan can go on shouting on Kashmir for all time to come, 
but an early settlement on the Indus waters is essential 
for maintenance of peace in the sub-continent
Anonymous Indian official

the rivers pay no attention to partitions; 
the Indus just keeps rolling along through Kashmir and India and Pakistan

David Lilienthal

just enough whisky to drink and just enough water to fight over
Mark Twain

The wars of the next century will be about water.
Ismail Serageldin, World Bank vice-president

McKinney | CE397 Civil Engineering | UT Austin